SEARCH WITHIN CONTENT
Citation Information : Journal of Epileptology. VOLUME 24 , ISSUE 2 , ISSN (Online) 2300-0147, DOI: 10.1515/joepi-2016-0015, December 2016 ,Pages 95-104
License : (CC BY 4.0)
Received Date : 07-November-2016 / Accepted: 12-December-2016 / Published Online: 22-December-2016
Introduction. The role of cellular immunity in the pathogenesis of epilepsy, as an interaction between immunity and clinical and neurobiological variables is not properly understood.
Aim. The aim of the current study was to investigate the possible relationship between epilepsy forms, gender, focus localization, lateralization, handedness and cellular immunity with seizures frequency, their severity and length of therapeutic remission in partial forms of epilepsy.
Material and methods. Ninety two patients (38 men and 54 women) were included in the study. Symptomatic epilepsy was diagnosed in 40 patients and the cryptogenic form was diagnosed in 52 patients. The amount of different lymphocyte clusters were evaluated and they were transformed into nominal variables for MANOVA analysis. MANOVA was used for the analysis of the interrelationship between nominal fixed factors (epilepsy forms, gender, handedness, and focus laterality, and immunity variables) and dependent variables (remission and seizure frequency and their severity).
Results. Simple partial seizure (SPS) and complex partial seizure (CPS) frequencies were under the influence of interaction between immune and neurobiological variables. SPS, and in particular sensory SPS, were associated with CD4/CD8 ratio, gender, left temporal focus and handedness. The highest frequencies of SPS were revealed in cases of low CD4/CD8 ratio combined with left temporal focus, female gender and left-handedness. The maximal CPS frequency was observed in patients with a left frontal focus combined with a high B-lymphocyte level. The more severe seizures were revealed in left-handers with low CD8 and high CD4/CD8 ratio and in frontal left focus and a high T-lymphocyte level. There was a correlation between CD4 cell level and length of remission.
Conclusion. The complex multifarious connections between neurobiological, immune and clinical variables in patients with partial forms of epilepsy really exist.
Aarli J.A.: Epilepsy and the immune system. Arch. Neurol., 2000, 57: 1689–1692.
Ader R.: Psychosomatic and psychoimmunologic research. Psychosomatic Medicine, 1980, 42: 307–321.
Amadori A., Zamarchi R., De Silvestro G., Forza G., Cavatton G., Danieli G. A. et al.: Genetic control of the CD4/CD8 Tcell ratio in humans. Nature Med., 1995, 1: 1279–1283.
Annett M.: A classification of hand preference by association analysis. British Journal of Psychology, 1970, 61: 303–321.
Aronica E., Crino P.B.: Inflammation in epilepsy: clinical observations. Epilepsia, 2011, 52: 26–32.
Birnbaum G.: Introduction to immunology. In: J. Antel, G. Birnbaum, H.P. Hartung (eds.), Clinical neuroimmunology. Blackwell Science Ltd, London, 1998, 1–12.
Daruna J.H.: Introduction to psychoneuroimmunology. Elsevier Academic Press, Amsterdam 2004.
Feinstein A.R.: Principles of medical statistics. Boca Raton, Chapman & Hall/CRC, 2002.
Geschwind N., Behan P.: Left-handedness: Association with immune disease, migraine, and developmental learning disorder. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, 1982, 79: 5097–5100.
Geschwind N., Galaburda A.: Cerebral Lateralization. Biological mechanisms, associations and pathology: I. A hypothesis and program for research. Arch. Neurol., 1985a, 42: 428–459.
Geschwind N., Galaburda A.: Cerebral Lateralization. Biological mechanisms, associations and pathology: II. A hypothesis and program for research. Arch. Neurol., 1985b, 42: 521–552.
Geschwind N., Galaburda A.: Cerebral Lateralization. Biological mechanisms, associations and pathology: III. A hypothesis and program for research. Arch. Neurol., 1985c, 42: 634–654.
Kalinin V.V., Zemlyanaya A.A., Krylov O.E., Zheleznova E.V.: Handedness, alexithymia, and focus laterality as risk factors for psychiatric comorbidity in patients with epilepsy. Epilepsy & Behavior, 2010, 17: 389–394.
Kalinin V.V., Zemlyanaya A.A., Zheleznova E.V.,. Krylov O.E.: Premorbid Personality Traits, Focus Lateralization and Handedness as Risk Factors for Co-Morbid Affective and Anxiety Disorders in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy. Horizons in Neuroscience, 2012, 7: 175–190.
Kalinin V.V., Zemlyanaya A.A., Zheleznova E.V., Sokolova L.V.: Neurobiological and clinical predictors of remission and antiepileptic treatment efficacy in partial epilepsies. Journal of Epileptology, 2013, 21: 23–33.
Levite M.: Autoimmune epilepsy. Nat. Immunol., 2002, 3: 500.
Levite M., Rhart I.: Immunotherapy for epilepsy. Expert Rev. Neurother., 2002, 2: 809–814.
Mathews D.E., Farewell V.T.: Using and Understanding Medical Statistics. Karger, Basel 2007.
Mcmanus C., Bryden M.P.: Geschwind’s Theory of Cerebral Lateralization: Developing a Formal, Causal Mode. Psychological Bulletin, 1991, 110: 237–253.
O’Donoghue M.F., Duncan J.S., Sander J.W.: The National Hospital Seizure Severity Scale: a further development of the Chalfont Seizure Severity Scale. Epilepsia, 1996, 37: 563–571.
Orozco-Suarez S., Feria-Romero I., Rayo D., Diegoperez J., Fraire M., Sosa J. et al.: Adaptive immune response in epilepsy. In: J. Kanwar (ed.), Recent Advances in Immunology to Target Cancer, Inflammation and Infections. InTech, Croatia, 2012: 135–158.
Palace J., Lang B.: Epilepsy: an autoimmune disease? J. Neuro. Neurosurg. Psych., 2000, 69: 711–714.
Rasmussen T., Andermann F.: Update on the syndrome of chronic encephalitis in epilepsy. Cleve Clin. J. Med., 1989, 56: 181–184.
Rogers S.W., Andrews P.I., Gahring L.C.,Whisenand T., Cauley K., Crain B. et al.: Autoantibodies to glutamate receptor GLUR3 in Rasmussen’s encephalitis. Science, 1994, 265: 648–651.
Vedhara K., Irwin M.: Human psychoneuroimmunology. Oxford University Press, Oxford 2005.