Share / Export Citation / Email / Print / Text size:

International Journal on Smart Sensing and Intelligent Systems

Subject: Computational Science & Engineering, Engineering, Electrical & Electronic


eISSN: 1178-5608




VOLUME 5 , ISSUE 4 (December 2012) > List of articles


M. T. M. Khairi * / S. Ibrahim / M. A. M. Yunus / M. Faramarzi

Keywords : optical tomography, process tomography, flow imaging, concentration profiles, turbidity, attenuation coefficient, independent component analysis.

Citation Information : International Journal on Smart Sensing and Intelligent Systems. Volume 5, Issue 4, Pages 767-798, DOI: https://doi.org/10.21307/ijssis-2017-506

License : (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0)

Received Date : 07-October-2012 / Accepted: 23-November-2012 / Published Online: 01-December-2012



This paper reviews some of the recent applications of optical tomography as a measurement tool for process parameters measurement such as flow concentration profiles, velocity profiles, and mass flow rate. The attentions that have been received by the optical tomography system for the applications of industrial parameters measurement are mainly because of the radiation safe emission of light sources to human or environment, fast response time, non-intrusive technique, and established models of light propagation through media or medium of interest thus making the solutions of forward and inverse problems to be relatively simpler to accomplish. The reports of the experimental result in this paper are mainly based on the previous works done by researchers in the area of optical tomography application where the main aspects are discussed. As a whole, the optical tomography can be applied to measure the velocity of beads in flow rig, measuring bubbles flow, flame imaging for combustion rate estimation, and flow concentration profile. Most of the applications as mentioned are discussed in this paper. In the final parts of this paper, independent component analysis (ICA) is suggested to measure the turbidity of liquid with the air-bubble flow in a vertical pipe column.

Content not available PDF Share



[1] R. A. Williams and M. S. Beck, Process tomography: principles, techniques, and applications. Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd, 1995, p. 624.
[2] M. Tajjudin, “Fan Beam Optical Tomography,” Master Thesis, Universiti Teknologi
Malaysia, 2005.
[3] I. Ismail, J. C. Gamio, S. F. A. Bukhari, and W. Q. Yang, “Tomography for multi-phase flow
measurement in the oil industry,” Flow Measurement and Instrumentation, vol. 16, pp. 145-155,
[4] M. A. Bennett, R. M. West, S. P. Luke, and R. A. Williams, “The investigation of bubble column and foam processes using electrical capacitance tomography,” Minerals Engineering, vol.
15, pp. 225-234, 2002.
[5] R. Abdul Rahim, Optical Tomography: Principles, Techniques, and Applications. Johor
Bahru: Penerbit UTM, 2011.
[6] “Process Tomography Web Page,” University of Bergen, 1997. .
[7] S. Z. Mohd Muji, R. Abdul Rahim, M. H. Fazalul Rahiman, Z. Zakaria, E. J. Mohamad, and M. S. Karis, “The Linearity of Optical Tomography: Sensor Model and Experimental Verification,” Sensors & Transducers, vol. 132, no. 9, pp. 40-46, 2011.
[8] T. Froystein, “Gamma-ray Flow Imaging,” Proc. ECAPT 1993, Karlsruhe, Germany, pp. 213-
[9] R. Abdul Rahim, “A Tomography Imaging System for Pneumatic Conveyors using Optical
Fibers,” Phd Thesis, Sheffield Hallam University, 1996.
[10] S. Ibrahim, “Measurement of Gas Bubbles in a Vertical Water Column using Optical
Tomography.,” Phd Thesis, Sheffield Hallam University, 2000.
[11] M. A. Hashim, “Optical Process Tomography For Measurement of Bubbles,” Degree Thesis,
Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 2011.
[12] E. Schleicher, M. J. Silva, S. Thiele, A. Li, E. Wollrab, and U. Hampel, “Design of an
optical tomograph for the investigation of single- and two-phase pipe,” Meas. Sci. Technol, vol.
94006, no. 19, p. 14, 2008.
[13] C. Yan, J. Zhong, Y. Liao, S. Lai, M. Zhang, and D. Gao, “Design of an applied optical fiber process tomography system,” Sensors And Actuators, vol. 104, pp. 324-331, 2005.
[14] S. Ibrahim, R. G. Green, K. Dutton, K. Evans, R. A. Rahim, and A. Goude, “Optical sensor configurations for process tomography,” Meas. Sci. Technol, vol. 10, pp. 1079-1086, 1999.
[15] C. K. San, “Real Time Image Reconstruction For Fan Beam Optical Tomography System.,”
Master Thesis, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 2002.
[16] R. A. Rahim, L. C. Leong, K. S. Chan, S. Sulaiman, and J. F. Pang, “Tomographic Imaging: Multiple Fan Beam Projection Technique Using Optical Fibre Sensors,” Computers, Communications, & Signal Processing with Special Track on Biomedical Engineering, 2005. CCSP 2005. 1st International Conference on 14-16 Nov. 2005, pp. 115-119, 2005.
[17] R. A. Rahim, P. J. Fea, C. K. San, and M. H. Fazalul Rahiman, “Optical Tomography: Infrared Tomography Sensor Configuration Using 4 Parallel Beam Projections,” Sensors & Transducers, vol. 72, no. 10, pp. 761-768, 2006.
[18] M. A. Mohd Yunus, “Imaging Of Solid Flow In a Gravity Flow Rig Using Infra-Red
Tomography,” Master Thesis, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 2005.
[19] M. S. Saad, “Concentration and Velocity Measurement of Flowing Objects Using Optical and Ultrasonic Tomography,” Master Thesis, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 2007.
[20] L. L. Chen, “Implementation of Multiple Fan Beam Projection Technique in Optical Fibre
Process Tomography,” Master Thesis, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 2005.
[21] S. Ibrahim, R. G. Green, K. Dutton, and R. Abdul Rahim, “Lensed optical fiber sensors for
on-line measurement of flow.,” ISA transactions, vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 13-8, Jan. 2002.
[22] S. Z. Mohd Muji, M. Morsin, and R. Abdul Rahim, “Criteria for sensor selection in optical tomography,” in 2009 IEEE Symposium on Industrial Electronics & Applications, 2009, no. Isiea, pp. 510-514.
[23] R. A. Rahim, K. S. Chan, J. F. Pang, and L. C. Leong, “A Hardware Development for Optical Tomography System using Switch Mode Fan Beam Projection,” Sensors and Actuators A: Physical, vol. 120, no. 1, pp. 277-290, Apr. 2005.
[24] J. Park and S. Mackay, Data Acquisition for Instrumentation and control Systems. Newnes,
[25] M. M. Elmajri, “A Tomography Imaging System Using Two Types of Sensor,” Master
Thesis, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 2008.
[26] T. Dyakowski, L. F. C. Jeanmeure, and A. J. Jaworski, “Applications of electrical
tomography for gas – solids and liquid – solids flows — a review,” Powder Technology, vol.
112, pp. 174-192, 2000.
[27] P. Dugdale, R. G. Green, A. J. Hartley, R. Jackson, and J. Landauro, “Optical sensors for process tomography,” ECAPT 1992, Process Tomography: A Strategy for Industrial Exploitation, European Concerted Action on Process Tomography, Manchester, United Kingdom.
[28] R. G. Green, R. Abdul Rahim, K. Evans, F. J. Dickin, B. D. Naylor, and T. P. Pridmore, “Concentration profiles in a gravity chute conveyor by optical tomography measurement,” Powder Technology, vol. 95, no. 1, pp. 49-54, Jan. 1998.
[29] E. J. Mohamad, “Flame Imaging using Laser Based Transmission Tomography,” Master
Thesis, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 2005.
[30] P. Jon Fea, “Real-Time Velocity And Mass Flow Rate Measurement Using Optical
Tomography.,” Master Thesis, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 2004.
[31] R. A. Rahim, C. K. Thiam, M. Hafiz, and F. Rahiman, “An Optical Tomography System
Using a Digital Signal Processor,” Sensors, vol. 8, pp. 2082-2103, 2008.
[32] Y. Zheng and Q. Liu, “Investigation on concentration distribution and mass flow rate measurement for gravity chute conveyor by optical tomography system,” Measurement, vol. 39, pp. 643-654, 2006.
[33] M. R. Rzasa and A. Plaskowski, “Application of optical tomography for measurements of aeration parameters in large water tanks,” Meas. Sci. Technol, no. 14, pp. 199-204, 2003.
[34] M. . Beck, R. . Green, and " R. Thorn, “Non-intrusive Measurement of Solid Mass Flow in
pneumatic conveying,” J.Phys. E:Sci.Instrum., vol. 20, no. 7, pp. 835-840.
[35] M. S. Beck and A. Plaskowski, “Cross Correlation Flowmeters: Their Design and
Application,” IOP Publishing Ltd, p. 240, 1987.
[36] M. F. Rahmat, “Instrumentation of Particle Conveying Using Electrical Charge
Tomography,” Phd Thesis, Sheffield Hallam University, 1996.
[37] M. H. Fazalul Rahiman, “Real Time Velocity Profile Generation of Powder Conveying
Using Electrical Charge Tomography,” Master Thesis, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 2002.
[38] G. C. Xie, A. L. Stott, S. M. Huang, A. Plaskowski, and M. S. Beck, “Mass-flow Measurement Of Solids Using Electrodynamics and Capacitance Transducers.,” J. Phys. E:Sci. Instrum, vol. 22, no. 9, pp. 712-719, 1989.
[39] R. A. Rahim, K. T. Chiam, M. H. F. Rahiman, and “ P. Jayasuman, “Velocity Profile Measurement Using Digital Signal Processor-Based Optical Tomography System,” IEEE Sensors Journal, vol. 9, no. 9, pp. 1076-1083, 2009.
[40] R. Abdul Rahim, P. J. Fea, and C. K. San, “Optical tomography: real-time velocity profile measurement using pixel-to-pixel and sensor-to-sensor method,” Optical Engineering, vol. 45, no. 3, p. 033604, 2006.
[41] S.Ibrahim, R.G.Green, K.Evans, K. Dutton, and R. A. Rahim, “Optical Tomography for process measurement and control,” in Proc. Control UKACC Int. Conf Sept 4-7, 2000,, pp. 188-
[42] R. Abdul Rahim, Y. Mohd Yunos, M. H. Fazalul Rahiman, S. Z. Mohd Muji, C. Kok Thiam, and H. Abdul Rahim, “Optical tomography: Velocity profile measurement using orthogonal and rectilinear arrangements,” Flow Measurement and Instrumentation, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 49-55, Mar. 2012.
[43] C. Tan and F. Dong, “Cross Correlation Velocity of Oil-water Two-Phase Flow by a Dual-
Plane Electrical Resistance Tomography System,” IEEE, 2010.
[44] W.L. Yaw, “Real-Time Mass Flow Rate Measurement for Bulk Solid Flow Using
Electrodynamic Tomography System,” Master Thesis, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 2007.
[45] C. Qiu, B. S. Hoyle, and F. J. W. Podd, “Engineering and application of a dual-modality
process tomography system,” Flow Measurement and Instrumentation, vol. 18, pp. 247-254,
[46] M.R.Rzasa, “The measuring method for tests of horizontal two-phase gas–liquid flows, using optical and capacitance tomography.,” Nuclear Engineering and Design,, vol. 239, no. 4, pp. 699-707, 2009.
[47] R. Mohd Zain, “The Development Of A Dual Modality Tomography (DMT) System Using Optical And Capacitance Sensors For Solid/Gas Flow Measurement,” Master Thesis, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 2009.
[48] S. Z. M. Muji et al., “Optical Tomography: A Review On Sensor Array, Projection Arrangement and Image Reconstruction Algorithm,” International Journal of Innovative Computing, Information and Control, vol. 7, no. 7, pp. 1-17, 2011.
[49] N. Mohammad Rohi, “Dual modality tomography system using optical and electrodynamic sensors to obtain tomographic images of solid flow,” Master Thesis, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 2009.
[50] B. A. Cattle and R. M. West, “A two-dimensional dual-modality tomography technique for a radioactive waste separation process,” Annals of Nuclear Energy, vol. 33, pp. 1236-1244, 2006. [51] L. Bilro, S. A. Prats, J. L. Pinto, J. J. Keizer, and R. N. Nogueira, “Design and performance assessment of a plastic optical fibre-based sensor for measuring water turbidity,” Measurement Science and Technology, vol. 21, no. 10, p. 107001, Oct. 2010.
[52] A. F. B. Omar and M. Z. B. Matjafri, “Turbidimeter design and analysis: A review on optical fiber sensors for the measurement of water turbidity,” Sensors, vol. 9, no. 10, pp. 8311-
8335, Jan. 2009.
[53] I. Niskanen, J. Räty, and K.-E. Peiponen, “A multifunction spectrophotometer for measurement of optical properties of transparent and turbid liquids,” Measurement Science and Technology, vol. 17, no. 12, p. N87-N91, Dec. 2006.
[54] P. Aiestaran, J. Arrue, and J. Zubia, “Design of a Sensor Based on Plastic Optical Fibre
(POF) to Measure Fluid Flow and Turbidity,” Sensors, vol. 9, pp. 3790-3800, 2009.
[55] M. Borecki, “Intelligent Fiber Optic Sensor for Estimating the Concentration of a Mixture-
Design and Working Principle,” Sensors, pp. 384-399, 2007.
[56] P.Comon, “Independent component analysis: A new concept?,” Signal Process, vol. 36, no.
3, pp. 11-20, 1994.
[57] C. Jutten and J. Herault, “Blind separation of sources, Part 1: An adaptive algorithm based on neuromimetic architecture,” Signal Processing, vol. 24, pp. 1-10, 1991.
[58] N. Delfosse and P. Loubaton, “Adaptive Separation of Independent Sources: A Deflation
Approach,” Signal Processing, vol. 45, pp. 59-83, 1995.
[59] C. J. James and C. W. Hesse, “Independent component analysis for biomedical signals
(Topical review),” Pysical. Meas., vol. 26, no. 1, p. R15-R39, 2005.
[60] N. Katsumata and Y. Matsuyama, “Database retrieval for similar images using ICA and
PCA bases,” Eng. Appl. Artif. Intell., vol. 18, no. 6, pp. 705-717, 2005.
[61] P. C. Yuen and J. H. Lai, “Face representation using indepedent component analysis,”
Pattern Recognit., vol. 35, no. 6, pp. 1247-1257, 2002.
[62] Y. Xu, H. Wang, Z. Cui, F. Dong, and Y. Yan, “Separation of Gas-Liquid Two-Phase Flow Through Independent Component Analysis,” IEEE Instrumentation And Measurement, vol. 59, no. 5, pp. 1294-1302, 2010.
[63] G. Wang, Q. Ding, and Z. Hou, “Independent component analysis and its applications in signal processing for analytical chemistry,” Trends in Analytical Chemistry, vol. 27, no. 4, pp.
368-376, 2008.
[64] F. Esposito et al., “Spatial independent component analysisof fuctional MRI time-series: To
what extent do result depend on algorithm used?,” Hum. Brain Mapp., vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 146-
157, 2002.